Monday, August 05, 2019 03:00 AM

TESTOSTERONE ACCUMULATION IN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS IS ENHANCED BY FACILITATED DIFFUSION. - UROTODAY

Testosterone is a driver of prostate cancer (PC) growth via ligand-mediated activation of the androgen receptor (AR). Tumors that have escaped systemic androgen deprivation, castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC), have measurable intratumoral levels of testosterone, suggesting that a resistance mechanism still depends on androgen-simulated growth. However, AR activation requires an optimal intracellular concentration of androgens, a situation challenged by low circulating testosterone concentrations. Notably, PC cells may optimize their androgen levels by regulating the expression of steroid metabolism enzymes that convert androgen precursors into androgens. Here we propose that testosterone entry into the cell could be another control point.

To determine whether testosterone enters cells via a transporter, we performed in vitro 3 H-testosterone uptake assays in androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen and AR-independent PC3 cells. To determine if the uptake mechanism depended on a concentration gradient, we modified UGT2B17 levels in LNCaP cells and measured androgen levels by liquid-liquid extraction-mass spectrometry. We also analyzed CRPC metastases for expression of AKR1C3 to determine whether this enzyme that converts adrenal androgens to testosterone was present in the tumor stroma (microenvironment) in addition to its expression in the tumor epithelium.

Testosterone uptake followed a concentration gradient but unlike in passive diffusion, was saturable and temperature-dependent, thus ...

News source: GOOGLE NEWS

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